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With the SSD line of products, Dairyland offers decouplers with lower cost and very compact designs. Using proven, solid-state construction, but with new production and packaging techniques, the innovation of the SSD line adds value by lowering the cost of applying protection products to industry. With ratings for AC fault current and lightning, and the ability to pass steady-state AC current, the device outperforms other technologies such as metal oxide varistors, gapped arrestors, and polarization cells. A major application of the SSD is in acting as a "Ground Mat Decoupler," by separating grounding mats from pipelines (to improve cathodic protection) while still providing over-voltage protection for workers.
Features and Characteristics
- Compact, lightweight package
- Range of AC Fault Ratings
- Higher Blocking Voltage than Polarization Cells
- UL and C-UL Listed for Grounding Electrical Equipment
- UL, C-UL Listed for Class I, Division 2 Locations
- Certified by UL/DEMKO for Meeting ATEX Directive for Zone 2; CE Marked
- Certified by UL for IECEx Zone 2 locations
- Submersible Design
- threshold voltage
- -2/+2V (standard)
- -3/+1V (optional)
- For other product options, contact Dairyland
- ac steady-state current (amperes - rms) 50/60Hz
- 45A (standard)
- lightning surge current
- 100kA crest (4 x 10 µs waveform) for 5.0KA, 3.7KA and 2.0KA models
- 75kA crest (4 x 10 µs waveform) for 1.2kA models
- environmental rating
- IP68 - submersible (to 2m depth)
- hazardous (classified) areas
- ANSI/ISA 12.12.01, CSA C22.2 No.213 M1987 (R2008): Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D
- ATEX: EN60079-0: 2012, EN60079-15: 2010 - Zone 2, Group IIC
- IECEx: IEC60079-0: 6th Ed., IEC60079-15: 4th Ed. - Zone 2, Group IIC
- third-party listings and approvals
- Underwriter's Laboratories (UL)
- Underwriter's Laboratories - Canada (C-UL)
|AC Fault Current (amperes-rms) 60 Hz|
|Model||1 cycle||3 cycles||10 cycles||30 cycles|
The SSD has been tested by Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTLs) for compliance to independent standards in its operation, ratings, and construction. This includes compliance to standards for:
UL (United States) and C-UL (Canada) listing for:
Providing an "effective ground-fault current path" as defined in NFPA 70 (US National Electrical Code - NEC), Article 250.2, and required in 250.4(A)(5)
Likewise, per Canadian Standards Association CSA C22.1-12 Canadian Electrical Code, Article 10-500.
Providing over-voltage protection in accordance with the applicable requirements of ANSI C62.11
BLOCKING CATHODIC PROTECTION CURRENT
Providing DC isolation of objectionable DC ground currents in grounding conductors as defined in NFPA 70, Article 250.6(E), and in CSA C22.1-12 Article 10-806
HAZARDOUS LOCATION USE
The SSD has been certified for use in Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D hazardous locations by UL, C-UL according to:
- NFPA 70 (U.S. National Electrical Code) sections 500-505
- ANSI/ISA 12.12.01-2011
- CSA C22.2 No.213-M1987 (R2008)
The SSD has been certified to the ATEX Directive 94/9/EC for use in Zone 2, Group IIC hazardous locations by UL/DEMKO, according to:
- EN60079-0: 2012 and EN60079-15:2010
The SSD has been certified IECEx for use in Zone 2, Group IIC hazardous locations by UL, according to:
- IEC60079-0: 6th Ed and IEC60079-15: 4th Ed
The SSD has been tested by various Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTLs) for various aspects of its operation, ratings, and construction. These include:
UL (United States) and C-UL (Canada) listing for:
- Providing an "effective ground-fault current path" as defined in 2005 NFPA 70 (US National Electrical Code - NEC), Article 250.2, and required in 250.4(A)(5)
- Similarly, it meets the same per Canadian Standards Association CSA C22.2 No. 0.4-M1982 (reaffirmed 1999), using Canadian Electrical Code Part I, section 10-500, 10-806 as a guide.
- Providing over-voltage protection in accordance with the applicable requirements of ANSI C62.11
Listing assures compliance to the above standards by DEI devices in providing electrical over-voltage protection and safety grounding.
Blocking Cathodic Protection Current
Providing DC isolation of objectionable DC ground currents from cathodic protection systems as defined in NFPA 70, Article 250.6(E)
HAZARDOUS LOCATION USE
The SSD has been listed for use in Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D hazardous locations by UL and C-UL, according to:
- U.S. National Electrical Code section 500-505
- UL 1604: "Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and Class II, Division 2, and Class III Hazardous (Classified) Locations"
- CSA C22.2 No.213-M1987: "Non-Incendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I, Division 2 HazardousÂ Locations"
The polarization cell is an electrochemical switch comprised of pairs of stainless steel or nickel plates immersed in a solution of potassium hydroxide. It responds to DC current by polarizing the plates and reducing the flow of DC current. This occurs up to the threshold of about 1.2V, after which it effectively becomes a dead short. AC current can pass through the device. The electrolyte usually has an oil film on the top to prevent the evaporation. This electrolyte is a hazardous material, with issues of safety, disposal, and environmental concerns. Regular maintenance of the fluid level is needed, especially under conditions where high AC steady-state induced current is present, which can cause the fluid level to be reduced. Fluid level must be maintained to provide the nameplated AC fault current rating, otherwise the surface area for conduction is reduced. On some interval, the fluid is replaced with new electrolyte.
The SSD is a solid-state device which provides DC isolation and AC grounding, up to a threshold of 2 to 3V. It has low AC impedance, allowing induced AC current to be shunted to ground, while providing a high impedance to DC current flow. The solid-state design is based on established DEI technology that is fail-safe and maintenance-free. Applications include AC mitigation, lightning over-voltage protection, AC fault conduction, stray current blocking, and grounding electrical equipment that are tied to CP systems. On this last application, Dairyland offers the only UL listed devices for providing an effective grounding path for electrical grounding as required per NEC section 250.
Specific comparison of polarization cells to Dairyland SSD
DC leakage current
DC leakage current through the polarization cell is typically 1mA to about 40mA, while blocking 0.5V to 1.5V, respectively. This represents the amount of cathodic protection current that will be allowed to leave the pipeline through the device. Beyond about 1.2V, the polarization cell conducts heavily.
The SSD leakage current for the same voltage range as above is about 0.005mA to 0.5mA. It represents a reduction in leakage current to approximately 1/100th of that of a polarization cell, keeping the cathodic protection system current requirements minimized.
Lightning surge current rating:
SSD: 75,000A or 100,000A crest (4x10 microsecond waveform)
Polarization cell: no published value
AC fault current ratings:
SSD: Various, stated at 1, 3, 10, 30 cycles for each rating
Polarization cell: Various, 30 cycle rating
SSD: 2 or 3V, depending on model
Polarization cell: 1.2V typ.
The polarization cell is sometimes arranged with two or more in series to achieve a higher blocking level. Our solid state approach never requires this.
SSD: Fail-safe; the device will always fail as a dead short
Polarization cell: fails open
Neither device is a one-shot device. The SSD can see an unlimited number of operations within its rating. The "fail-safe" approach is a significant safety issue, protecting workers and equipment.
Polarization cell: Potassium hydroxide
Polarization cell: regular fluid checks. Occasional fluid replacement. Eventual disposal of electrolyte.
The cost of maintenance over the life of the polarization cell, coupled with the cost of safety matters, liability, environmental damage, and decommissioning, has driven a significant number of past users of polarization cells to our solid-state technology. Â Many major consulting engineers now specify our solid-state devices for DC isolation and AC grounding.
Third party listing:
SSD: UL and C-UL listed as an "effective grounding path," and can be installed in grounding conductors of electrical equipment. Also listed for hazardous locations: Class I, Division 2.Â Certified by UL/Demko for use in Zone 2 locations.
Polarization cell: none
There are actually no other known devices that are third party listed in this area.
Typical terms: gas tube arrester, spark-gap arrester, surge diverter
If the voltage across the gap gets high enough, an arc bridges the two electrodes, establishing a current path. From typical data sheets, it takes an AC or DC voltage of many hundreds to about one thousand volts to flash over, and during lightning conditions, a voltage of about 800V to several thousand volts. The arrester can usually carry 30,000 to 100,000A of lightning surge current (this is the peak value of an 8 x 20 microsecond waveform, which is the industry standard waveform for testing for lightning conditions). Manufacturers do not usually publish AC fault current data, as a gapped arrester cannot carry AC fault current for any significant length of time before failure would occur. The device cannot be used to provide induced AC voltage mitigation, as the device is a permanent open circuit. Failure mode is that the device remains a permanent open, with the electrodes burned back. The device then provides limited or no further over-voltage protection for the joint or structure. The voltage allowed on the structure can then rise to high levels.
The SSD will handle 75,000A or 100,000A (depending on model selected) of lightning surge current (4x10 microsecond waveform.) The device goes into conduction at a much lower voltage than a gapped arrester, keeping the voltage across the insulated flange to a low value. For steady-state conditions, the SSD goes into conduction at either 2V or 3V (dpending on model selected). For lightning surge conditions, the voltage across the SSD would be about 100V. The voltage allowed across a gapped arrester, in comparison, will reach unsafe levels.
No arcing occurs within the SSD - it uses large solid-state components for conduction. Notably, the SSD has the ability and ratings to handle AC fault current, with published rating data. No other product has any significant AC fault rating. During any AC fault condition, the SSD would have less than 10V across it. Devices such as gapped arresters do not have published AC fault ratings as they are not intended for such service, yet AC conditions on pipelines are common.
AC mitigation is performed by the SSD, since it is a low impedance to AC current, but a high impedance to DC current from the CP system. It collapses induced AC voltage down to a low level. This function is not available on a gapped arrester.
When protecting insulated joints, many manufacturers of insulated joint kits do not publish satisfactory voltage withstand data such that customers can consider if their protective device can adequately protect the joint. With our known, low threshold voltage, the SSD will provide the best protection for insulated joints or any other connection points where it is applied.
Another very important issue is regarding the design of the SSD, which is considered "fail-safe." The SSD, if exposed to values beyond our already high ratings, will always fail in the shorted mode (fail as a dead-short). This assures that over-voltages will be clamped to the lowest levels, and if current beyond our ratings is present, the device will safely and non-eventfully fail, bonding the two points together for safety. A gapped arrester has an open gap, which will always remain an open gap. If the arrester were to fail, it would be as an open circuit.
Regarding independent product approvals, DEI has the most extensive approvals of any company. The SSD is UL and C-UL listed as an "effective grounding path," so that it can be used for motor operated valve isolation in grounding leads, or other grounding conductor applications. It also is UL and C-UL listed for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations, as well as certified by Demko and CE marked for use in Zone 2 locations.
In summary, our benefits over arresters are:
1) The SSD has a much lower threshold voltage.
2) The SSD can handle AC fault current of significant values.
3) The SSD clamps over-voltages to much lower levels than any MOV or gapped arrester.
4) The SSD is a fail-safe device.
5) The SSD has known, fixed parameters.
6) The SSD is third-party listed to applicable US standards.
Please contact us if we can answer any questions about these issues.
Zinc grounding cells
These cells consist of two zinc rods, with insulation material to separate them, in a conductive backfill material, packaged in a bag. The insulation or separator leaves the zinc rods reasonably close together without touching. The backfill material promotes conduction and contact with the surrounding earth, as the package is buried near the points it is connected to. A wire lead attaches each rod to a point of interest, such as across an insulated flange, or between a pipeline and ground. The concept for protection is that the zinc rods will allow separation of the two structures, and minimize the DC cathodic protection current flow under normal conditions. Under over-voltage conditions, the small separation between the rods, and the conductive backfill will allow current to flow between them, draining the unwanted current.
There are several ways in which the zinc grounding cells will not perform very well for this application. First, the package must be buried. If the application is protection of insulated joints from over-voltage (lightning, for example), and the joint is above ground, the leads that connect to the joint will be at least several feet each. Under lightning surge conditions, this affords little or no over-voltage protection to the insulated joint, as leads have inductance, which lightning sees as a high impedance, and therefore creates a large voltage drop in the leads. Lightning protection for insulated joints is best done by locating a device directly across the joint, which cannot be done with zinc grounding cells, as compared to the Dairyland SSD.
Another electrical problem comes from AC power system fault current. Zinc grounding cells are generally not sized for handling any significant fault current.
Power laboratory testing to assure the performance of this product would be challenging, as this product is placed in service by burying in the earth, which would be difficult or impossible in a lab setting that could provide the needed values of lightning surge current or AC fault current. We have seen no test data for these products.
By separating the zinc rods in the package to achieve isolation, the question arises as to what voltage is allowed by the cell. Separation of two metallic surfaces by a medium (air, gases, solid insulation, semi-conductive backfill) has been common for over-voltage protection, but consistency of performance is an issue. Having the separation be consistent, producing a known, fixed clamping voltage is difficult if the product can vary in dimensions or construction. Consistency in over-voltage protection using a zinc grounding cell is in question, just as a spark gap arrester in air can vary during atmospheric changes due to moisture.
In addition, where the desire is to provide the lowest possible over-voltage on the structure during an event, a device should have a low impedance for conduction of current. This is not the case with a zinc grounding cell.
As a comparison to the above description, consider the characteristics of the SSD. It is an AC conducting, DC blocking device in the normal mode. For DC (cathodic protection) current, it presents a very high impedance, while appearing as a 10 milliohms path to AC 60Hz current. The SSD blocks DC voltage up to 2 or 3V (depending on model selected), then appears as a short circuit for disturbances. When the event is over, the device automatically reverts to blocking DC current. There is no internal gap in the device, so over-voltage clamping occurs at a very low voltage - much lower than any other technology. Consistency in performance is assured through the use of tested power semiconductor components. The device has been designed so that it will even fail as a short circuit if exposed to currents beyond the rating, providing a fail-safe nature. (There have been no failures of a SSD to date, for any reason.) The SSD has been tested in a power laboratory and is rated for lightning surge current and AC fault current.
Problems such as induced AC voltage on pipelines can be handled by the SSD as well, since it appears as a low impedance AC path while blocking DC current. This collapses the induced voltage down to insignificant values. Other major applications of the SSD include protection of insulated joints, electrical isolation of equipment on pipelines from station ground, on structures such as pipelines, tanks, grounding systems, and other cathodically protected systems.
Since our beginning in 1983, DEI has produced almost all of the solid-state decouplers and safety grounding devices supplied to the industry The SSD compares favorably to other solid-state products that have appeared in recent years. As these other products attempt to mimic the DEI designs, they may appear similar, but significant differences exist. DEI features include:
• Unique, patented construction that assures maintenance-free operation
• Assured fail-safe design, independently tested
• UL, C-UL, and CE marked and tested
• Proprietary manufacturing methods that assure corrosion resistance, high AC fault capability, and low leakage current
The SSD has extensive certification. In fact, no other products of this type on the market have any known certification to any standards whatsoever. Consider the following SSD certifications:
• UL listed as an "effective grounding path" per the US National Electrical Code (NEC)
• UL listed for blocking cathodic protection current per the US NEC
• UL listed as meeting the lightning surge current standards
• UL listed for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations
• UL listed NEMA 4X and 6P environmental ratings
• C-UL listed as an "effective grounding path" per the Canadian Electrical Code
• C-UL listed for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations
• CE marked per a Type Examination by DEMKO as meeting the ATEX directive for Zone 2 hazardous location use in Europe
For more information see the SSD Certifications and Listings
All SSD Models with 1.2KA Fault Current
|All Other SSD Ratings|
Note: For other SSD models or quantities, contact Dairyland for more information.